How to apply alkaline soil

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There are many alkaline soils in northern China. However, due to the large-scale use of chemical fertilizers throughout the year, many soils in greenhouses often have “red cream” and “white base”, which are all symptoms of soil alkalinity. The reporter suggested starting from the following points to improve the soil condition.

First, a large amount of organic fertilizer is added, and green manure or pine needle soil is mixed. Organic fertilizer can effectively supplement the organic matter in the soil. It is recommended that the vegetable farmers use a large amount of 25-30 square meters (previously reported many times, no longer repeat them here). Mixing green manure and pine needle soil is a quick and effective way to improve alkaline soil. Green manure and pine needle soil are made up of weeds, decaying pine cypress needles, residual branches and other litter, which are more acidic. Generally, the soil organic physicochemical properties can be improved by incorporating 1/5-1/6 green manure or pine needle soil in alkaline soil.

Secondly, the phosphate fertilizer applied is changed to diammonium phosphate or superphosphate. The use of diammonium phosphate and superphosphate in alkaline soils works well. In the process of topdressing fertilizer, try to apply physiological acid fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, etc., which can neutralize the soil.

Again, an alkaline soil amendment is applied. Studies have shown that gypsum or phosphogypsum-based soil amendments have a significant effect on alkaline soils. The alkaline soil improver mainly comprises gypsum, urea and the like. This method of combining chemical improvement and physical improvement using crop straw mixed gypsum can fundamentally improve soil compaction with remarkable effects.

In addition, when implementing the above three measures, attention should be paid to the application depth. Generally, the base fertilizer should be applied to the entire plough layer, that is, a depth of 15-20 cm. For organic fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer, potassium fertilizer, and micro-fertilizer, it can be mixed and evenly spread on the surface, and then ploughed into the soil to achieve uniform mixing of the fertilizer and the whole ploughed soil, so as to facilitate the absorption and utilization of nutrients by different root layers of the crop. Phosphate fertilizer is poor in mobility and is easy to be fixed after application to the soil and loses its effectiveness. Therefore, it should be applied in two layers at the bottom, that is, the lower layer is applied to a depth of 15-20 cm, and the upper layer is applied to a depth of about 5 cm. The upper layer mainly meets the demand for phosphorus in the seedling stage, and the lower layer supplies the phosphorus nutrition in the middle and late stages of crop growth.

Author: Wang Yanyi
Source: China Vegetable Newspaper
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